Advance Care Planning

Imagine you're in intensive care at a hospital, stricken by a life-limiting illness and unable to communicate. Despite the best medical care, it's unlikely you will leave the hospital alive. They can, however, prolong your breathing and heart function temporarily by using artificial life support.

Is this the kind of treatment you want for yourself?


Do you want to leave these healthcare decisions up to your loved ones or doctors, with no guidance from you?


Scenarios like the one mentioned above occur all too often. While most of us strive to be in control of our lives, many haven’t prepared to be in control of what happens to them near the end of life.


A survey by the Conversation Project reported that 97 percent of people said it's important to have end-of-life preferences in writing, however, only 37 percent have actually done it.

How to get started

First steps include honest conversations with your family. You can always start small and build up to more serious topics. Look for opportunities to help your family understand that spelling out your wishes for care will spare them the anxiety of guessing your preferences during a medical crisis.


The Conversation Project Starter Kit is a free guide to sharing your wishes for end-of-life care.


Two vital documents for your advance directive are a living will and a health care proxy from. Some states combine these documents into a single form.

Living will

A living will is an advance care directive that spells out medical treatments you would want, or would not want, if you couldn't speak for yourself. You do not need a lawyer to complete a living will.


Some of the important medical decisions in a living include whether or not you want specific life-prolonging medical treatments at certain stages of end-of-life care. For example:


  • Do you want CPR if it's unlikely you'll ever regain consciousness or you're at the end-stage of a terminal illness?
  • At what point should doctors withhold a respirator or feeding tube to extend life?
  • Would you want kidney dialysis if your kidneys fail?


Advance directive rules are different for almost every state. Search for advance directive and your state's name


Identify your health care proxy

A health care proxy, also called power of attorney for healthcare, medical power of attorney or a healthcare agent, is a person you choose to make health care decisions, if you cannot make them for yourself. Many states enable you to quickly complete this specific document. Search "healthcare proxy forms" and your state's name.


Some advance directives may include spiritual requests, organ donation information and choices for emergency treatments, such as Do Not Resuscitate orders.

Physician Orders for Scope of Treatment (POST) form

A Physician Orders for Scope of Treatment (POST or POSTL) is a set of instructions for health care professionals to recognize and honor a patient's treatment preferences for life-sustaining measures, such as CPR, a breathing tube and feeding tube.


POST forms are typically for terminally ill or frail seniors who want to ensure their end-of-life wishes are followed by emergency personnel, doctors and medical staff. The POST form is not a substitute for a more inclusive advance directive. Living wills and health proxy forms are more relevant for people in good health.


What is a POST form and do you need one?


How is a POST form different from a DNR?

A Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) order is a one-page document focused only on a person's preference to not receive cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) if they stop breathing or their heart stops beating. The DNR does not address other medical treatments.